Case Definition: Riot-Control Agents
Inhalational exposure to riot control agents may cause rapid onset of the following signs and symptoms: lacrimation, nasal or oropharyngeal irritation, choking sensation, cough, dyspnea and wheezing. Cutaneous exposures may produce skin irritation, rash, and chemical burns. (1-6)
Laboratory criteria for diagnosis
- Biologic: No biologic marker for exposure to riot control agents is available.
- Environmental: Detection of riot control agents in environmental samples. (7-10)
- Suspected: A case in which a potentially exposed person is being evaluated by healthcare workers or public health officials for poisoning by a particular chemical agent, but no specific credible threat exists.
- Probable: A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for riot control agent exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case.
- Confirmed: A clinically compatible case in which air sampling or environmental laboratory tests have confirmed exposure.
The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing was not performed because either a predominant amount of clinical and nonspecific laboratory evidence of a particular chemical was present or the etiology of the agent is known with 100% certainty.
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